posted by najlaa
SMART GRID
DETECTION OF ENERGY THEFT AND DEFECTIVE SMART METERS
The project aims to study consumers’ energy utilization behaviour and evaluate their anomaly coefficients so as to identify the periods and locations of energy frauds as well as faulty smart meters. A metric known as the loss
factor, is proposed in the model to estimate the percentage of technical losses and measurement noises in the power distribution networks.  A low-voltage power distribution test rig (i.e., metering infrastructure consists of a collector at substation and three smart meters at consumers’ households), replicating a modern smart grid is constructed in the laboratory. A series of electrical tests are conducted and test results obtained are correlated with Matlab simulation results in order to validate the reliability and performance of the entire energy theft detection system.
DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADAPTIVE PROTECTION SCHEME USING REAL-TIME SIMULATOR
This research aims to develop a protection scheme to allow coordination of more than 4 main-backup overcurrent relay pairs, without exceeding the operating time constraint of 1.2 seconds. An adaptive overcurrent protection scheme has been devised for the aforementioned purpose. Thus unwanted power interruptions to the customers, caused by the grouping of the relays, will be avoided. Moreover, the damaging effect of fault on the whole power system will be reduced by decreasing the operating times of the coordinating relays. A HIL (Hardware-in-Loop) configuration, incorporating Real Time Simulator (Opal-RT), Current Amplifier (Omicron’s CMA 156) and Directional Numerical relay (Alstom Grid’s P14D), is being used for proving the concept.
ENERGY SECURITY FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION via SMART MICROGRID
Integration of energy systems such as solar photovoltaic (PV) power plants into power grid has become a challenging subject nowadays. One of those important applications of energy system is to provide secure and redundant electrical power for remote area where the connection to the main power network is neither possible nor economic for utility providers. To electrify a rural area, an independent (islanded) distribution network has to be formed (i.e. microgrid). Microgrid must provide its local loads with high quality power. Microgrid can provide the rural area with low cost and secure electrical energy. Remote area can produce their own needful electrical power for their general application such as telecommunication, heating and cooling, health care, and water treatment.

 

RENEWABLE ENERGY
ZERO ENERGY, OFF GRID RESIDENTIAL HOMES
Our today’s social, technological and industrialized development is heavily dependent on the fossil fuels which are already on the brink of extinction. Other related issues are our inappropriate technology of using them as energy source which cause immense magnitude of green house gases and air pollution. To ensure sustainable human development, the concept of self sustained zero energy; off grid residential homes is gaining popularity in scientific and policy making circles.
The idea is to develop cost effective and sustainable insulating constructional panels for building architecture of the residential homes. And integrate the residential home with photovoltaic (PV) cells, water electrolyzer and fuel cell system. In principle, PV cells will energize the water electrolyser (water electrolyzer will be capable of using waste water) which generate hydrogen by splitting the water molecules. This hydrogen will be feed to fuel cell to generate electricity.
In this study, we are working on;
1)    Development of cost effect, earthquake proof insulated structural panels and joining method.
2)    Development and characterization of cost effective, low temperature efficient dye sensitized solar cells.
3)    Optimization of PV, electrolyzer and fuel cell integrated system.
4)    Development and characterization of bi-functional electrocatalysts to improve efficiency of water electrolyzer.
DEVELOPMENT and CHARACTERIZATION of LOW TEMPERATURE EFFICIENT DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS

The technology of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) for low cost conversion of sun light into electricity is probably one of the few technologies which came to its maturity and commercialization in a very short span of time since its first introduction in 1991 by Gratzel. The concept of making these cells flexible is the priority to the date due to its remarkable market potential in portable electronic devices, easy fabrication and transportation.

In flexible technology, two types of substrates i.e. metallic and conducting plastic sheets have been used. Plastic substrates further provide cost effectiveness and light weight. Because of the low degradation temperatures of flexible plastic substrates (120 to 150oC in case of ITO-PEN substrate) being used in the fabrication of photoanode for flexible DSSCs, their incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) is limited to 2 to 3%. The basic cause of low efficiency is high recombination reactions due to poor inter-particle connections between nanoparticle surfaces which hinder the transfer of electrons from the semiconductor network. This hindrance facilitates electrons to be picked up by either dye sensitizer and/or electrolyte and thus reduce the efficiency of the solar device. In our study, we attempt to improve the efficiency of flexible DSSC using various doping agents and other proven strategies.

Objectives:
1. Investigate the potential applications of concepts of neck formation and surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) in the field of DSSCs.
2. Investigate the effect of various doping and/or sintering agents on the efficiency of DSSCs.
3. Development of high efficiency cost effective, low temperature DSSCs
4. Economic analysis of DSSCs developed at relatively lower temperatures.

 

SMART POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM
CASCADED MULTILEVEL INVERTER BASED ON TRANSISTOR-CLAMPED H-BRIDGE POWERCELL
cascadedmultilevelinverterThe cascaded multilevel inverter uses 5-level transistor-clamped   H-bridge (TCHB) power cell.Two-cell configuration can produce up to 17 levels of line voltage, sufficient to produce a high-quality output.Total power loss is lower compared to other conventional cascaded multilevel inverters (i.e. cascaded NPC and 9-level CHB) that produce the same output quality at the same operating voltage owing to lower component counts.

The inverter is potential for use in medium-voltage applications (e.g. electric drives in heavy industries, ship propulsion, electric train as well as flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) devices – STATCOM, DVR,  etc.).

MODIFIED THREE-PHASE AC/DC CONVERTER WITH CASCADED BOOST-SEPIC OUTPUT STAGE
parallelacdcA modified three-phase buck rectifier with cascaded boost-SEPIC converter at the output stage operates in continuous-conduction mode (CCM), and its purpose is to achieve sinusoidal input currents with low current total harmonic distortion (THD), near-unity power factor, and high DC voltage gain during low duty cycle operation. Altera field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to generate pulse-width modulated (PWM) control signals, and to compute  Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) algorithm.

 

MOTOR AND DRIVES
SENSORLESS VECTOR CONTROL DRIVES FOR INTERIOR PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR BASED ON SIMPLIFIED STATOR FLUX OBSERVER
motordrivesresearchThis research focuses on the implementation of sensorless closed-loop field oriented control (FOC) drives system using simplified stator flux observer (SFO) in TMS320F2812 digital signal processor (DSP) platform. The overall performance of the drive system is observed and tested using a 600W, 4 poles IPMSM at different speed reference, constant load condition.
POWER QUALITY AND SYSTEM PROTECTION
THE STUDY OF DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT RELAY AND DIRECTIONAL EARTH-FAULT PROTECTION APPLICATION FOR 33 KV UNDERGROUND CABLE SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA
powersystemThis research investigates a suitable relay connection and the maximum torque angle for the
directional relay for 33 kV underground network. In this study, a section of 33 kV underground network in Kuala Lumpur (KL) city has been analysed. All faults types have been simulated at all possible location in the network. The obtained voltage and current were then used to determine the operation of directional overcurrent and earth-fault relay. The relay operation is tested for two cases; (1) Case A – all breaker closed and (2) Case B – breaker at either end is open.
SMART TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
OPERATION OF A SIX-PHASE INDUCTION MACHINE WITH SERIES-CONNECTED CONVERTERS
Compared with conventional parallel-connection, the topology with series-connected converter provides the following advantages:

  • Possibility of operating low voltage machine at higher dc-link voltage  without need for voltage boosting stage
  •  Reduction in dc-link current rating and cable size.
  • Possibility of operating with reduced CMV, which reduces leakage current that can damage the machine.

smarttransport

AUTOMATION AND CONTROL
DISTRIBUTED COLLISION AVOIDANCE ALGORITHMS FOR AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AIRCRAFT
Novel distributed CAS algorithms have been proposed supporting UAV free-flight concept. This work focused on CAS development and verification. Avoidance is formulated by finding the optimal control commands that minimize multi-level cost functions, considering UAV safety & trajectory deviation efficiency. Experiments conducted conclude that the proposed CAS guarantees safety, operates in real-time and is efficient in terms of flight-path length deviation.

uav